John Stuart Mill presented in his logic system (Book III, Chapter 8-10) five methods of experimental study and examined them such as the method of concordance, the method of difference, the common method of concordance and difference, the method of residues and the method of simultaneous variation. Mill said that these are the methods that allow us to discover and highlight cause-and-effect links, and that they are fundamental to scientific study. Mill called these methods “methods of eliminating induction.” In doing so, he made an analogy with the elimination of terms in an algebraic equation – an analogy that is rather forced, except for the different methods classified as the method of difference. It will turn out that it may be preferable to use the term “elimination methods” with respect to the elimination of candidates for the role of the thing that characterizes all these methods. The residue method can be interpreted as a variant of the differential method in which the negative instance is not observed, but built on the basis of already known causal laws. On the other hand, the difference method (4.2) requires only the observation of 1.2; This eliminates all possible causes, except A and all disjutions that do not contain A, either as insufficient because they are present in N1, or because they are not necessary because they are missing in I1. The only ones that are not eliminated are those that appear in I1, but not in N1, and these must contain A. Thus, this observation shows with this hypothesis that a necessary and sufficient condition (A or…) is, i.e. either A itself, or a disjunction containing A, where the other disjunct causes are possible causes that are lacking in N1.
This naturally means that A himself, the factor thus chosen, can only be a sufficient condition for P. Determining precisely the causes and effects is not an easy task. We can often confuse or misrepreseg the two because we lack sufficient information. Mill`s methods are attempts to isolate a cause from a complex sequence of events. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who wrote on a wide range of subjects ranging from language and science to political philosophy. The so-called “mill” methods are five rules for the search for the causes he has proposed. It has been assumed that some of these rules were in fact discussed by the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037). One of the main characteristics of scientific methodology is verification and falsification. Remember J.
4 that an appeal is made to Dieun if we conclude for lack of evidence that something is the case or not. While there are times when a lack of evidence should lead to a judgment that the original claim is not substantiated (as in a criminal court), this is not the case in scientific practices. Mills` rule of understanding states that if, in all cases where an effect occurs, there is a single prior C factor common to all of these cases, then C is the cause of the effect.